Chromium: The good, the bad, and the not-so-important

Chromium:  The good, the bad, and the not-so-important

Chromium is found and produced in several different forms. The most common forms are metallic, trivalent and hexavalent. The trivalent form occurs naturally and is an essential nutrient. Its needed for fatty acid and cholesterol production and insulin metabolism. It is found in eggs, meat, cheese, whole grains and certain fruits and vegetables. Metallic chromium isn’t pertinent to this article (Pediatric Environmental Health, 3rd edition, Dr. Ruth Etzel, Editor, and Dr. Sophie Balk, Assoc. Editor. Elk Grove Village, IL:  2012).

Hexavalent chromium is the toxic form. The US National Toxicology Program, World Health Organization, EPA, and International Agency for Research on Cancer have all identified hexavalent chromium as a human carcinogen. It comes mostly from industrial emissions and passes into the air, water, and soil. It’s also part of tobacco smoke. Chromium is used in so many ways it isn’t surprising it is found in more than 50% of the National Priorities List superfund hazardous waste sites as well as many landfills. Fossil fuel burning and steel production are major sources of chromium in the air. The movie Erin Brockovich was about The Pacific Gas and Electric Company’s role in the excessive chromium in water and even though it has been out a long time, this is still a real problem.

Absorption of hexavalent chromium from the lungs is high. Gastrointestinal absorption of this form can be as high as 50% but much of it is converted to the trivalent form. Chromium doesn’t stay in the body very long, so antidotes and chelators aren’t in demand. Vitamin C helps convert hexavalent chromium to the trivalent form. Laboratory assessments are not particularly useful, and environmental documentation is more helpful.

Topical chromium is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Swallowing a large amount of hexavalent chromium could cause nausea, vomiting and acute kidney failure.

The biggest concern is with chronic inhalation of the hexavalent form of chromium. Those at highest risk are those working or who have worked in industries where chromium is used. These individuals have an increased chance of developing nasal and lung cancer. The latter risk increases with the duration of an exposure and there’s about a 13 to 30-year latency period. In “Profiling stainless steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions, hexavalent chromium emissions and operating costs in the workplace,” (by M. Keane, et al in Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2016, v. 13#1, pages 1-8) almost half a million Americans do some welding in their work, and that is a potential exposure. Gas metal arc welding was found to create less exposure to toxic gases.

In “Hexavalent Chromium Is Carcinogenic to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice” (by M. Stout, et al, in Environmental Health Perspectives, v117, #5, for May 2009, pages 716-722), the possibility of an increased risk for oral, stomach and duodenal cancer with chronic consumption of water polluted with excess chromium was raised. The research done involved giving water with various levels of hexavalent chromium in it to the test animals for 2 years. Before you decide that this isn’t relevant to humans, consider the fact that rats and mice are used in research because they share many biological processes and tissue structures with humans.

This all lends support to having water tested, including well water, before even a sip.

Citrus versus Cancer: Guess which one Wins!

Citrus versus Cancer:  Guess which one Wins!

Before plunging into all the nutrients and cell protectors found in citrus fruits, it is worth stating an important fact once again. That key concept is that with these foods, as with most super foods, the benefits add up to much more than the sum of its parts. To put it another way, you can’t take the specific molecules, even in the amounts proportionate to what they are in the fruit, and reap the same rewards. These compounds work together. This writer can think of no other comment on this amazing aspect of many foods than the word miraculous. To profit fully from these foods, eat them as they are – the whole food. Even juices are often far inferior to their original containers. And really, why do we want to add time, effort and expense to our diet?

Numerous anticancer compounds are found in citrus fruits, maybe more than any other food, and per the National Cancer Institute a complete package of natural cancer inhibitors. Some of these cancer fighters include the following:

 

  • Pectin which is a soluble fiber, impairs growth factors that cancers need to keep growing. This same compound benefits the cardiovascular system as well. The white lining of citrus fruit is especially high in pectin.
  • Citrus flavonoids in the juice, pulp and skin are antioxidants (protecting cells from free radical damage – something that comes from many sources including normal energy production and inflammation). They are also antimutagenic – preventing the cell mutations that are the first step in cancer development. Flavonoids are also anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. They also strengthen blood vessels as well as tendons, cartilage and ligaments.
  • Folate in citrus is another compound that helps protect the DNA. Folate also helps protect the cardiovascular system.
  • Limonene is a phytonutrient (nutrient found in plants) in the oil of citrus peel. They function to detoxify – another cancer fighting action of citrus. Animal research has shown this compound can help shrink tumors. These chemicals may also have antimicrobial properties. Add citrus zest to fruit dishes and coleslaw.
  • Vitamin C helps protect against nitrosamines, carcinogens associated with GI cancers such as stomach cancer. Vitamin C’s effects are strengthened by bioflavonoid polyphenols that are also found in citrus. C also decreases stroke and cataract risk.

Carotenoids are found in particular in tangerines and grapefruit. These also fight cancer. Citrate levels in urine are increased with orange juice consumption and that helps stop kidney stone formation. This was noted in David Grotto’s book 101 Foods that could save your life (Nutrition Housecall, 2007).

Other references:  Tonia Reinhard’s Super Foods (Firefly Books, 2014), Eat This and Live by Don Colbert (Siloam, 2009) and Fourteen Foods that will change your life SuperFoods (HarperCollins, 2004).