Vitamin D Deficiency, diseases and drugs
Vitamin D is needed by almost every tissue in the body, so the harm from deficiency isn’t surprising. The majority of research on vitamin D deficiency and depression found a correlation between the two, but a few studies didn’t. In one such study, “Low vitamin D status is associated with more depressive symptoms in Dutch older adults,” (E.M. Brouwer-Brolsma, et al, in European Journal of Nutrition, 2016, 55:1525-1534) supplementing those with depression with vitamin D for two years didn’t lead to any improvement. Is there some other benefit from sun exposure apart from vitamin D synthesis that improves mood?
Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium. It also helps regulate this mineral in the body. So, it isn’t surprising that vitamin D deficiency is associated with weak even deformed bones in children. A lack of this vitamin can also lead to seizures and heart failure. In adults, vitamin D deficiency can lead to hypertension, coronary artery disease, and heart failure. In one study of patients with heart failure, 87% were found to be significantly deficient in vitamin D. Muscle weakness is common with a shortfall of the vitamin, so it isn’t surprising that falls and fractures are more common in those with a lack of it.
It has long been known that vitamin D is needed by many of the immune system cells and those that are deficient in t have a much higher risk of developing autoimmune disorders such as type 1 (juvenile) diabetes as well as multiple sclerosis. A country in northern Europe started giving infants vitamin D every day for their first year and after twenty years of this practice, the rates of type 1 diabetes fell by over 80%! Resent research shows a link between a lack of vitamin D and type 2 (adult onset) diabetes. The immune system is more able to fight infections if the blood level of vitamin D are normal.
Vitamin D appears to boost the body’s cancer-fighting ability. Those with metastatic colon cancer may have a longer life expectancy if they maintain adequate levels of it. This isn’t surprising given the way it supports immune system functioning.
Some medications have been found to be linked to vitamin D deficiency. This information comes from “Vitamin D deficiency as adverse drug reaction? A cross sectional study in Dutch geriatric outpatients.” (A.C.B. van Orten-Luiten, et al, in European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 2016, 72:605-614). The following are those uncovered thus far:
- metformin for type 2 diabetes
- loop diuretics such as furosemide and potassium-sparing diuretics like spironolactone
- digoxin used for heart failure and atrial fibrillation
- warfarin, a medication that decreases blood clot formation
- ACE inhibitors such as lisinopril and
- SSRI antidepressants such as sertraline.
See your health care provider if you are taking one of these medications and ask if a vitamin D supplement may be recommended. Those needed to avoid sun exposure may want to ask about this as well.