Vitamin D is needed by almost every tissue in the body, so the harm from deficiency isn’t surprising. The majority of research on vitamin D deficiency and depression found a correlation between the two, but a few studies didn’t. In one such study, “Low vitamin D status is associated with more depressive symptoms in Dutch older adults,” (E.M. Brouwer-Brolsma, et al, in European Journal of Nutrition, 2016, 55:1525-1534) supplementing those with depression with vitamin D for two years didn’t lead to any improvement. Is there some other benefit from sun exposure apart from vitamin D synthesis that improves mood?
Vitamin D is needed to absorb calcium. It also helps regulate this mineral in the body. So, it isn’t surprising that vitamin D deficiency is associated with weak even deformed bones in children. A lack of this vitamin can also lead to seizures and heart failure. In adults, vitamin D deficiency can lead to hypertension, coronary artery disease, and heart failure. In one study of patients with heart failure, 87% were found to be significantly deficient in vitamin D. Muscle weakness is common with a shortfall of the vitamin, so it isn’t surprising that falls and fractures are more common in those with a lack of it.
It has long been known that vitamin D is needed by many of the immune system cells and those that are deficient in t have a much higher risk of developing autoimmune disorders such as type 1 (juvenile) diabetes as well as multiple sclerosis. A country in northern Europe started giving infants vitamin D every day for their first year and after twenty years of this practice, the rates of type 1 diabetes fell by over 80%! Resent research shows a link between a lack of vitamin D and type 2 (adult onset) diabetes. The immune system is more able to fight infections if the blood level of vitamin D are normal.
Vitamin D appears to boost the body’s cancer-fighting ability. Those with metastatic colon cancer may have a longer life expectancy if they maintain adequate levels of it. This isn’t surprising given the way it supports immune system functioning.
Some medications have been found to be linked to vitamin D deficiency. This information comes from “Vitamin D deficiency as adverse drug reaction? A cross sectional study in Dutch geriatric outpatients.” (A.C.B. van Orten-Luiten, et al, in European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 2016, 72:605-614). The following are those uncovered thus far:
metformin for type 2 diabetes
loop diuretics such as furosemide and potassium-sparing diuretics like spironolactone
digoxin used for heart failure and atrial fibrillation
warfarin, a medication that decreases blood clot formation
ACE inhibitors such as lisinopril and
SSRI antidepressants such as sertraline.
See your health care provider if you are taking one of these medications and ask if a vitamin D supplement may be recommended. Those needed to avoid sun exposure may want to ask about this as well.
Before plunging into all the nutrients and cell protectors found in citrus fruits, it is worth stating an important fact once again. That key concept is that with these foods, as with most super foods, the benefits add up to much more than the sum of its parts. To put it another way, you can’t take the specific molecules, even in the amounts proportionate to what they are in the fruit, and reap the same rewards. These compounds work together. This writer can think of no other comment on this amazing aspect of many foods than the word miraculous. To profit fully from these foods, eat them as they are – the whole food. Even juices are often far inferior to their original containers. And really, why do we want to add time, effort and expense to our diet?
Numerous anticancer compounds are found in citrus fruits, maybe more than any other food, and per the National Cancer Institute a complete package of natural cancer inhibitors. Some of these cancer fighters include the following:
Pectin which is a soluble fiber, impairs growth factors that cancers need to keep growing. This same compound benefits the cardiovascular system as well. The white lining of citrus fruit is especially high in pectin.
Citrus flavonoids in the juice, pulp and skin are antioxidants (protecting cells from free radical damage – something that comes from many sources including normal energy production and inflammation). They are also antimutagenic – preventing the cell mutations that are the first step in cancer development. Flavonoids are also anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial. They also strengthen blood vessels as well as tendons, cartilage and ligaments.
Folate in citrus is another compound that helps protect the DNA. Folate also helps protect the cardiovascular system.
Limonene is a phytonutrient (nutrient found in plants) in the oil of citrus peel. They function to detoxify – another cancer fighting action of citrus. Animal research has shown this compound can help shrink tumors. These chemicals may also have antimicrobial properties. Add citrus zest to fruit dishes and coleslaw.
Vitamin C helps protect against nitrosamines, carcinogens associated with GI cancers such as stomach cancer. Vitamin C’s effects are strengthened by bioflavonoid polyphenols that are also found in citrus. C also decreases stroke and cataract risk.
Carotenoids are found in particular in tangerines and grapefruit. These also fight cancer. Citrate levels in urine are increased with orange juice consumption and that helps stop kidney stone formation. This was noted in David Grotto’s book 101 Foods that could save your life (Nutrition Housecall, 2007).
Other references: Tonia Reinhard’s Super Foods (Firefly Books, 2014), Eat This and Live by Don Colbert (Siloam, 2009) and Fourteen Foods that will change your life SuperFoods (HarperCollins, 2004).